PVC – Polyvinyl chloride (Polyvinylchloride)
PVC – Application: Approx.. 20% of all thermoplastics is constituted by PVC. In the world used year around 25 million tons, and consumption is increasing. In Europe, approximately prepared. 4,5 million tons , which is used against 60 % in construction-building industry. PVC(hard) used for water treatment- and chemical plants in the form of tubes, fittings, fittings or plates, processed into vessels, containers or ventilation systems, eaves, downspouts, gutters, and windows. Soft PVC is used include. for flooring, covers and seals in the construction sector. In addition, it is used for parts of office machines, TV, as well as bottles and cans. Many credit cards also consists of PVC. Also used for footwear and rainwear, as well as for printing on textiles. In addition, it is used for shower curtains, oilcloth, toys, badebassiner, garden hoses, lim, cable insulation, and mats. clear plates (PVC voice) used as glazing material or shaped articles.
Impact resistant PVC (PVC-TF) used for shielding, containers, instrumentpaneler , machine screens and cabinets.
Plates used for signage and the like, since they are susceptible to varnishes and printing inks. Here are mainly used PVC-TF and foamed PVC.
Fire: PVC is a non combustible material and self-extinguishing according to DIN 4102 og UL 94 V-0. The ignition temperature is approximately. 390°C. Combustion released hydrochloric, when connected with atmospheric moisture to form hydrochloric acid.
Bending: Suitable for bending in warm goat machines at smaller thicknesses. Plates can be, of course, varmbukkes by heating with heat gun el. or similar. The plate is heated, until it softens, and then be bent over an edge, a tube or otherwise, that has the desired shape. The plate is held in this position, until it has cooled. Bending with welding bucks sword at greater thicknesses.
Electrical properties: PVC has good electrical insulation properties, but has a high dielectric loss.
|PVC-U (PVC hard)||PVC-P (PVC soft)|
|Dielectric figure DIN 53483 50 Hz||3,5||4 – 8|
|Dielectric figure DIN 53483 106 Hz||3,0||4 – 4,5|
Colors: Half Make delivered clear and in almost all colors. PVC-U pipes and fittings and plates are typically supplied in the Dark (RAL 7011). C-PVC may typically be light gray (RAL 7034).
Physiological properties: Can be used for food contact, but required certain stabilizers and control of monomerindhold.Ved softened types also approval of the plasticizer.
Trade names: Vinoflex®,Vikupor®, Komacal®, Kömacel®, PVC-CAW, PVC-TF®, PVC-Glas®
1835: Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) basis for PVC var i syntesiseret Giessen laboratory for første gang af Justus Von Liebig (picture).
1839:The French chemist Victor Regnault of published his observations on the appearance of a white powder, VCM when exposed to sunlight in a closed bottle. .
1860: Hoffman published a note about Polyvinyl bromide.
1872: Barman/Baumann syntesiserede Polyvinyl chloride.
1912: The German chemist Fritz Klate, from the chemical factory Griesheim, said base discovered for the industrial production of PVC.
1929:In the United States produced the first commercial product made of PVC.
1930: The German industry (bl.a. BASF i Rheinfelden) started PVC production. Applied to the water supply in Germany during 2. World.
1940: England begins commercial production .
1945: PVC is the most plastic produced in the world.
1950: Argentina begins production of PVC products.
1956: Solvay begin manufacturing in Brazil (Solvay, who at the time, was known as Eletrocloro; idag med navnet Solvay Indupa do Brasil).
1961: Indupa S.A. begins production in Cinco Saltos, Province i Rio Negro, Argentina.
Identification fire test: Burns with a heavily sooting flame, yellow, green edge. White smoke and smells like hydrochloric acid (self-extinguishing, develops chlorine gas).
Kalandrering: Plastic film can be prepared by passing the plastic mass through a system of heated rollers. By regulating the temperature of the rollers and the spacing, one can determine the film thickness. Calendering used include. in the manufacture of PVC sheet for flooring, rainwear etc.
Category: Amorphous transparent plastic.
Chemical resistance: Should not be used with stronger solvents
PVC is resistant to many chemicals and has little tendency to stress corrosion cracking.
This applies to brines, diluted and partially also concentrated acids and alkalis, non-polar solvents, petrol, oils, fatty alcohols and.
PVC is not resistant to esters, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene. As a solvent can be used as tetrahydrofuran and cyclohexanone.
Oleumholdig acids such as sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid are also destructive to PVC.
Chemical structure: as polyethylene, men med et chloratom i stedet for Hvert brintatom
Density g / cm³ PVC-U (PVC hard) 1,38 – 1,55
Density g / cm³ PVC-P (PVC soft) 1,16 – 1,35
Delivery: Plates pipe rods welding wire.
Bonding: Bonding of PVC parts is a common technique and is used for pipes, fittings and other parts of PVC. There is mostly a solution slim, containing PVC dissolved in e.g.. tetrahydrofuran. Before gluing cleaned surfaces with methylene chloride or sanded. When bonding to other materials used eg. contact adhesive, polyurethane adhesive or epoxy adhesive tokomponent. Gluing of softened PVC can be problematic .
Mechanical properties: PVC comes in many variations. Rigid PVC is one of the most rigid plastics. Hence follows a high strength at ordinary temperature. Although the impact strength is normally really good, there is quite a large kærvfølsomhed. When used at low temperatures should burrs and sharp corners therefore be avoided.
PVC-TF has a fantastic combo nation af extreme impact strength, good dimensional stability and
rigidity. PVC glass has a high impact strength. PVC sheet with foamed core, is very stiff relative to the weight.
Environment: During combustion, among others. dioxin and hydrochloric acid.
PVC consists of carbon, print and chlor. PVC is a hard plastic, be added a plasticizer, if it is to be bent.
Should be used for extraction at indoor welding .
The production can cause safety problems due to the content of vinylchlorid. Chemical Substances, used in the manufacturing process e.g.. hydrogen chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane, may also cause health and safety problems. PVC added other substances that may be environmentally- and harmful. Man used earlier leaded stabilizers. Denmark has adopted a ban on the sale and import of leaded products the 1. March 2001.
PVC can also contain include. heavy metal cadmium. phthalates is added to the rigid PVC to make it soft.. phthalates suspected to have negative long-term effects in the aquatic environment. Some phthalates are suspected of endocrine disruption, cause of declining sperm quality, as well as cases of breast- and testicular cancer.
Phthalater in toys intended for children under three are banned in the EU.
Burning produces large amounts of waste , to be deposited;.
Optical properties: PVC er i natur et klart materiale. PVC glass is clear plastplader with a hanker Transmission, largely as PMMA’s nearby 85% However, with a slight blåtoning.
Surface treatment: Hard panels can be very easily painted and printed. You can use solvent-based paints and dyes, dissolving the surface with a good adherence. Deep-pressure method is suitable .
A prerequisite for good adhesion is always a cleaning of the plate with a suitable cleaning agent.
Assembly (mechanical):. Since the threads in the PVC does not have particularly high strength, should be either pressed down into a threaded bush suitable for plastic, or used through screws. Do not use countersunk holes. Thin threads are often assembled by popnitning. Finally, click-fitting recommended.
Cutting: Cutting, including sawing, boring, planing, turning and milling can be made on the general machine tools. There should be used sharp tools. As refrigerant can if necessary be used air, water or oil emulsion (borevand).
Punching and cutting are usually trouble-free until about. 4 mm thickness.
Welding: Heat Mirror 220-250OC, hot air welding 350-400OC, extrudersvejsning, friction welding 100-500 m/min., high frequency welding or ultrasonic welding. Alm. PVC, and PVC containing plasticizers, can usually be welded with ease.
For the butt welding, and hot air welding of PVC-C can result in air bubbles in the welding / vulst, causing strength degradation. It can be avoided by wiping PVC-C pipe or plate and welding consumables in 4 hours at 100 ° C. PVC-C should not be welded with extruder
Thermal Properties: PVC-U continuous use temperature, that. 60°C, briefly up to about. 90°C – by harsh static influences only to about. 45°C. Special types of PVC can be used at higher temperature – CPVC (overchloreret) to about. 100°C. The glass transition temperature for rigid PVC is about. 80°C.
In addition, the rubber-elastic material.
PVC-flex – a softened Type – having rubbery properties at ordinary temperature.
additives: Plasticizers can change the rigid PVC for almost rubbery res. Widely used plasticizer DEHP. Thermostabilizators . UV stabilizing additives. Glass fibers. Fillers.
Mixtures with such. SAN , ABS, synthetic rubber, Acrylates and hærdeplasttyper.
UV- Stability: Hard types are not usually for long-term outdoor use, men PVC-TF, PVC glass and foamed PVC sheets is usually stabilized and suitable for outdoor use. UV stability is excellent for those types.
Thermoforming (Termoformning): PVC-TF and PVC glass is widely used materials for thermoforming. The material is easy to shape, also from a complicated shape or in the deep row. PVC-TF can be up to koldbukkes 3 mm plate thickness.
Density ( gram / cm³ ) : PVC-U 1,38 – C-PVC 1,51 – PVC-P 1,16 to 1,35.